Climate Change Across Seasons Experiment (CCASE) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Snow and Frost
Climate Change Across Seasons Experiment (CCASE) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Snow and Frost
Pamela Templer
Boston University
Department of Biology
5 Cummington Mall
Boston, MA 02215

Phone: 617-353-6978
Rebecca Sanders-DeMott
University of New Hampshire
Earth Systems Research Center
8 College Rd
Durham, NH 03824
Stephanie Juice
University of Vermont
Burlington, VT
Francis Bowles
Research Designs
Lyme, NH
Laura Sofen
University of California Berkeley
Berkeley, CA
Jamie Harrison
Boston University
Boston, MA
Ian Halm
USDA Forest Service, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262

Phone: (603) 726-8902
This dataset contains snow depth and frost depth measurements from the Climate Change Across Seasons Experiment (CCASE) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Samples are collected weekly throughout the winter months.
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
snow, frost, ecosystems, forests, HBEF CCASE Plots, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, soil warming, snow removal.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
disturbance, populations.
CCASE (Climate Change Across Seasons Experiment)plots located north of the Pierce Laboratory.
West bounding coordinate: -71.702662
East bounding coordinate: -71.69936
North bounding coordinate: 43.94688
South bounding coordinate: 43.945197
Mean annual temperatures for the northeastern U.S. are projected to increase 3-5 degrees C by the year 2100, which could increase water and nutrient uptake and carbon storage by trees. However, the increase in temperature will lead to a smaller winter snowpack and increased frequency of soil freeze/thaw cycles, which may offset the positive effects of warming by damaging roots. The overall result could be reduced nutrient uptake and storage of carbon and further elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms and controls underlying changes in nutrient uptake by trees is necessary for improving predictions of how ecosystems will respond as the climate changes. Whereas many studies have evaluated the impacts of climate change on forests within a single season, few have examined the impacts of climate change across seasons and how these impacts interact. These "across season" effects could be antagonistic or synergistic, which would not be apparent from examining one season alone.
The goals of this research are to determine the interactive effects of winter and growing season climate on water and nutrient uptake and carbon sequestration in northern hardwood forests. These goals are being accomplished with a new ecosystem warming experiment at Hubbard Brook.
CCASE was established in a red maple (Acer rubrum) dominated forest in 2012. There are six plots total (each 11 x 14m). Two are warmed 5 degrees C throughout the growing season (Plots 3 and 4). Two others are warmed 5 degrees C in the growing season and have snow removed during winter to induce soil freeze/thaw cycles (Plots 5 and 6). Four kilometers (2.5 mi) of heating cable are buried in the soil to warm these four plots. Two additional plots serve as controls for our experiment (Plots 1 and 2).
Snow depth is measured weekly in four locations in each plot from December through April using a meter stick placed vertically into the snowpack on each sample date in each plot quadrant.

Soil frost depth is measured weekly using frost tubes constructed of flexible PVC tubing (1.3 cm diameter) filled with methylene blue dye (Ricard et al. 1976), which were inserted into rigid PVC casings 50 cm below the soil surface at four locations within each plot.
  • Templer, P.H., Reinmann, A.B., Sanders-DeMott, R., Sorenson, P.O., Juice, S.M., Bowles, F., Sofen, L., Harrison, J., Halm, I., Rustad, L., Martin, M., and Grant, N. (in Press) Climate Change Across Seasons Experiment (CCASE) at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Combined Effects of Increased Growning Season Temperatures and Winter Freeze-Thaw Cycles on the Northern Forest. PLOS ONE,
Data Use Policy

The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

7) Disclaimer. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

8) Terms of Agreement. By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.


Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262

Phone: (603) 726-8902

Data file: ccase_snowfrost.txt
Description: Snow and frost measurements in the CCASE plots at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest.
Notes on Data: The original data is located in the Templer Lab, Boston University and was updated in November 2015.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1PlotPlot numbernoneynone
3DATESample dateYYYY-MM-DDnnone
4YearDayDay of yearnoneynone
5SnowDepthSnow Depthcentimeternnone
6FrostDepthFrost Depthcentimeternnone
7WinterWinter ID in form of YY-YYnoneynone


Variable: Plot
Plot number
Variable: Treatment
Untreated plot
Soil warming treatment
Soil warming plus freeze-thaw treatment
Variable: YearDay
Day of Year
Variable: Winter
Winter ID