Climate Change Across Seasons Experiment (CCASE) Sapling Study at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Root Damage
TITLE
Climate Change Across Seasons Experiment (CCASE) Sapling Study at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Root Damage
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s)
Pamela Templer
Boston University
Department of Biology
5 Cummington Mall
Boston, MA 02215
US

Phone: 617-353-6978
Rebecca Sanders-DeMott
University of New Hampshire
Earth Systems Research Center
8 College Rd
Durham, NH 03824
US
ABSTRACT:
Root damage, as relative electrolyte leakage, was assessed following winter freeze-thaw cycle experimental treatments in 2014 and 2015. There were seven treatments for each species of maple. For each species, ten saplings experienced ambient temperatures (reference), ten experienced growing season warming with no induced freeze-thaw cycles in winter (warmed), ten in each of four groups experienced warming in the growing season coupled with two, four, six, or eight soil freeze-thaw cycles in winter (warmed + 2 FTC, warmed + 4 FTC, warmed + 6 FTC, warmed + 8 FTC), and ten experienced snow removal in winter with ambient temperatures in the growing-season (snow removal).
KEYWORD SET: Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study LTER
root, root damage, ecosystems, forests, HBEF CCASE Plots, HBR, Hubbard Brook LTER, soil warming, snow removal, sapling.
KEYWORD SET: LTER Core Research Areas
disturbance.
BEGIN DATE
2014-04-17
END DATE
2015-04-20
LOCATION
CCASE (Climate Change Across Seasons Experiment) Sapling plots located near the Pierce Laboratory.
West bounding coordinate: -71.699855
East bounding coordinate: -71.699630
North bounding coordinate: 43.943234
South bounding coordinate: 43.942975
RESEARCH SUMMARY
Northern forest ecosystems are projected to experience warmer growing seasons, as well as winters with reduced snowpack depth and duration. Reduced snowpack will expose soils to cold winter air and lead to increased frequency of freeze-thaw cycles. The interactions between warmer soils in the growing season and colder soils in winter may have important implications for the phenology, productivity, and nutrient content of forest plants. As an extention of the Climate Change Across Seasons Experiment (CCASE) at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA, we conducted an experiement to examine the effects of growing season warming, reduced depth and duration of winter snowpack, as well as increased frequency of soil freeze-thaw cycles on sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and red maple (Acer rubrum) saplings. We examined the direct effects of soil temperatures on plant root health, timing of leaf-out, foliar nitrogen, rates of photosynthesis, and growth, as well as the indirect effects of snowpack reduction on herbivory on plant stems.
SITE DESCRIPTION
This experiment was conducted in an open field at the HBEF. We planted 70 red maple and 70 sugar maple saplings (2-3 years old) into individual 25-gallon open-bottomed buried pots (one plant per buried plot; 56 cm diameter, 46 cm depth) filled with homogenized soil. For each species, ten saplings experienced ambient temperatures (reference), ten experienced growing season warming with no induced freeze-thaw cycles in winter (warmed), ten in each of four groups experienced warming in the growing season coupled with two, four, six, or eight soil freeze-thaw cycles in winter (warmed + 2 FTC, warmed + 4 FTC, warmed + 6 FTC, warmed + 8 FTC), and ten experienced snow removal in winter with ambient temperatures in the growing-season (snow removal). At the time of planting in June 2013, saplings were removed from their original pots and planted in rows into the individual buried pots with their root ball intact. One buried pot was left bare at the end of each row of saplings to serve as a treatment buffer. A 2.2 m tall fence was installed around the site to protect saplings from browsing by large herbivores, such as deer and moose.
FIELD AND LABORATORY PROCEDURES
Immediately following snowmelt on April 17, 2014 and April 20, 2015 and prior to initiating warming treatment, we assessed root damage as relative electrolyte leakage. Approximately ~0.5 g of fresh fine roots were removed from four saplings per species in each treatment . Within twelve hours of excision, roots were separated into three replicates per sample of approximately 0.25 cm3 (0.04 - 0.10 g) root, and placed into centrifuge tubes with 15 mL of 0.1% Triton X-100 DDI water. Samples were agitated overnight and then solution conductivity was measured with an Oakton CON 110 TDS meter (Oakton Instruments, Vernon Hills, IL). Sample tubes were autoclaved at 101 degrees C for 15 minutes to kill roots, agitated for another 24 hours, and re-measured for solution conductivity. Root damage as % relative electrolyte leakage was calculated as the ratio of conductivity due to root membrane ion leakage before and after being heat-killed.
REFERENCES
  • Sanders-DeMott, R., McNellis, R., Jabouri, M., and Templer, P.H. (in Press) Snow depth, soil temperature, and plant-herbivore interactions mediate plant response to climate change. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12912 Journal of Ecology,
DATA ACCESS GUIDELINES
Data Use Policy



The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, government or other not-for-profit professional purposes.

2) Redistribution. The data and metadata are provided for use by the Data User. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set or metadata to others without the explicit permission of the Principal Investigator.

3) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly attribute the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier.

Citation example: Holmes, R.T. 2012. Bird Abundances at Hubbard Brook (1969-2010) and on three replicate plots (1986-2000) in the White Mountain National Forest. Durham, NH. Hubbard Brook Data Archive [Database]. http://data.hubbardbrook.org/data/dataset.php?id=81 (23 July 2012)

4) Acknowledgment: The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed to its content. Acknowledgments should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers.

Acknowledgment example: Data on [topic] were provided by [name of PI] on [date]. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Significant funding for collection of these data was provided by [agency]-[grant number], [agency]-[grant number], etc.

5) Consultation and questions. Data users are strongly encouraged to consult with the Principal Investigator(s) who collected these data for further information. Also, when appropriate, Data Users should consider including the Principal Investigator as a collaborator and/or co-author in the use of these data.

6) Notification. The Data User will notify the Principal Investigator of any publication or derivative work based on the Data Set. The Data User will also provide the Principal Investigator and/or the administrator of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study with a pdf or two reprints of any publication(s) resulting from use of the Data Set.

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CONTACT PERSON

Information Manager, Hubbard Brook LTER
234 Mirror Lake Road
North Woodstock, NH 03262
USA

Phone: (603) 726-8902
Email: hbr-im@lternet.edu

Data file: ccase_saplings_root_damage.txt
Description: Root damage measurements in the CCASE Sapling plots at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest.
Notes on Data: The original data is located in the Templer Lab, Boston University and was updated in November 2015.
ColumnVariableDescriptionUnitsCoded?Missing value label
1DateSample collection dateYYYY-MM-DDnnone
2Treatment Experimental treatment description noneynone
3sapling Sapling identification number numbernnone
4species Common name of sapling species noneynone
5rel Root damage as % relative electrolyte leakage percentn
-99.9

CODES

Variable: Treatment
Code
Description
Reference
Reference
Warmed
Warmed in growing season only
Warmed_2FTC
Warmed in growing season, plus 2 freeze/thaw cycles in winter
Warmed_4FTC
Warmed in growing season, plus 4 freeze/thaw cycles in winter
Warmed_6FTC
Warmed in growing season, plus 6 freeze/thaw cycles in winter
Warmed_8FTC
Warmed in growing season, plus 8 freeze/thaw cycles in winter
SnowRemoval
Snow removal in winter only
Variable: species
Code
Description
Sugar maple
Acer saccharum Marshall, USDA Plant Code = ACSA3
Red maple
Acer rubrum L., USDA Plant Code = ACRU

MISSING VALUE CODES
Variable
Missing Value Code
Code Explanation
rel
-99.9
Data not available